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Instructions for Authors

Article works can be uploaded in one of the following file formats: DOC, DOCX, ODT or RTF.
Please do not send manuscripts in PDF format.

All photos, figures, images, graphs and tables can be sent embedded in one manuscript file and it is not necessary to spare them as supplementary files. However, it is also possible to send these files as seperate supplementary addition. Color images must be at least 300 DPI resolution, whereas minimum 200 DPI resolution is required for grayscale images. The following image formats are acceptible: JPEG, PNG, TIFF and PDN. 
A standart manuscript should include the following parts:
- Title page and correspondence
- Abstract section
- Manuscript body with Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion and References sections
- Tables and images (if available and included)

INSTRUCTION FOR AUTHORS
The Annals of Medicine and Medical Education (AMME) publishes clinical and experimental work that is related to the field of medicine. In addition to original material, the AMME prints reviews, case studies, images of interest and letters to the editor. An approval of research protocols by an ethics committee in accordance with the international agreements (Helsinki Declaration of 1964, revised 2008 - available at http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/ and “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals -http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12910) is required for experimental, clinical and drug studies. The signed statement of the scientific contributions and responsibilities of all authors and a statement on the absence of conflicts of interest are required. The authors should acknowledge and provide information on grants, contracts or other financial support of the study that were provided by any foundations, institutions or firms.

ELECTRONIC MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
The preparation of manuscripts should conform to the updated Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://www.icmje.org)2. All manuscripts must be submitted electronically. The manuscript file that you submit must be saved as a.doc (MS Word document). Please number the pages consecutively, in the lower right hand corner and beginning with the title page. Use the left justification feature (ragged right margins), letter quality printing, and do not use line-numbering. The paper should be arranged in this order (all in one document): title page, abstract with keywords, abstract in English, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends.
Original Articles
Original articles should follow the basic structure of an abstract, introduction, Materials and Methods, results, discussion, references, and tables and figures (as appropriate). Submissions should not typically exceed 400 words for the abstract and 4000 words for the content; they should include no more than 35 references. Figures and/or tables should be limited to a total of ten (Table 2).

Case reports
Case reports should not exceed 2000 words with two tables or illustrations, a short unstructured abstract, and ten references. Case reports should follow the basic structure of an unstructured abstract, introduction, case report, discussion, references, and tables and figures (as appropriate). We do ask that authors indicate that they have obtained patient consent.

Letters to the Editor
We welcome letters in response to articles published in the AMME. These submissions must reach us before the next issue is published. The letters should be a maximum of 500 words, with one figure or table and no more than five references. Letters to the editor should include a title page and must only concern articles that were recently published in the AMME. A response to the letter will be requested from the author of the article in question; if there is a response, the letter and the response will be published together.

Image of Interest
Our image section consists of a case report of 250 words, a few instructional points, a maximum of two figures, and two references. We do ask that authors indicate that they have obtained patient consent if applicable. Image submissions should also include a title page, keywords and references. No additional legend subtitles for figures are necessary.
 
Reviews
Although they are usually commissioned, we occasionally accept unsolicited review articles.

MANUSCRIPT FORMAT

The manuscript format must be presented in the following order:

1.Title page
2.Abstract
a. Objective
b. Materials and Methods
c. Results
d. Conclusion
e. Keywords (3 to 6)

3.Main text (tables should be inserted where cited in the text; images must be uploaded as separate files)
a. Introduction
b. Materials and Methods
c. Results
d. Discussion
4.Acknowledgements, Competing interests, Funding
5.References

DO NOT write a separate “Conclusion” heading. (You may, however, begin where you believe your conclusion section to begin with “In conclusion...”

Title page
Please provide a concise and informative title of fewer than 150 characters. Include a list of all of the contributing authors and their affiliations. Supply full correspondence details for the corresponding author, including phone and/or fax number and e-mail address. Provide a short title for the manuscript (limited to 75 characters). The title page should include the following:

1.The full name and the highest relevant academic degree(s) of each author (limit of 2 degrees);
2.The names of the departments and institutions where the work was completed by each individual author (use symbols to link the authors to their affiliations) and the current affiliations if these have changed;
3.Disclaimers, if any;
4.Any sources of support in the form of grants, equipment or drugs;
5.The name of one author who is designated to be the corresponding author, with a complete postal ad¬dress, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address (this is the address to whom reprint requests will be address, unless the authors state that reprints will not be available); and
6.A short title (9 or fewer words), placed at the bottom of the page and identified as a footline.

Abstract
Please include an abstract of 400 or fewer words. The abstract should be easily understood without reference to the text (see Ann Intern Med 1987; 106: 598-604).
The abstract must have four separate, structured paragraphs (Objective, Materials and Methods, Results and Conclusion) that correspond to the research question, the material or patients, the methods, the results, and the answer to the research question. If necessary, one or two sentences with background information can be included before the research question. The question and the answer should be the same as those provided in the text. Include only a few important values and avoid using abbreviations or reporting statistics. State the purposes of the study, the basic procedures (study subjects or experimental animals; observational and analytic methods), the main findings (specific data and its statistical significance), and the conclusions. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the work. Avoid abbreviations other than standard units of measurement. Information in the abstract must match the information in the text and should not contain any information that is not presented in the text.

Keywords
Please provide a list of 3 to 6 keywords. The keywords should be listed alphabetically and in full without abbreviations. Keywords are best expressed as MeSH (Medical Subjects Headings) terms, which is the controlled vocabulary used by PubMed. The MeSH browser available online (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html) provides a guide for how to select keywords.

Text (Content and Style)
The texts of observational and experimental articles generally include these sections: Introduction, Patients (or Material) and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Other articles such as case reports and reviews will require other formats; authors should consult representative articles in the Journal.

Introduction
State the question that you asked (or the hypothesis to be tested) and the considerations leading to the formulation of the question. Provide only pertinent references. Case reports should also include an introduction.

Materials and Methods
1.Protection of Human and Animal Subjects Study
•Clearly describe how the subjects or experimental animals were identified, including the control subjects (if used). For animals, see Laboratory Animals, 1985; 19: 106-108.
•Clearly state the eligibility criteria for cases and controls in observational studies or for subjects in clinical trials.
•All work involving human subjects is expected to have received approval from the local ethics committees and the regulatory authorities (when appropriate; for example, for studies involving drug trials).
•Animal experimentation must be performed according to the Helsinki Convention for the use and care of animals.
•The editors reserve the right to refuse work that does not conform to acceptable ethical criteria.
a. Informed Consent: Studies. Manuscripts should state formally that the study was performed in compliance with the human-studies guidelines or animal-welfare regulations from the authors’ institutions and in compliance with the FDA guidelines and that informed, written consent was obtained from the human subjects after the nature of the procedure was explained.
b. Informed Consent: Patients’ Privacy and Confidentiality. Identifying information should be eliminated if not essential. When any such information is included, the patient must give informed, written consent for publication (for details, see Privacy and Confidentiality).

2.Manufacturing Information. Credit suppliers of drugs, equipment, and other materials should be described at length in the paper in parentheses at the first mention, giving specific product name and model number (if applicable), company name, and location (city, state, and country).

3.Numbers. Provide the exact numbers when possible; for example, “87 of 137 patients (63.5%)” is preferable to stating the percentage alone. Do not spell out numbers except at the beginning of a sentence.

4.Repetition. Summarize in the text, but do not repeat, the data presented in the tables and figures.

5.Abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract and keep abbreviations to a minimum in the rest of the paper. The full term should precede the first use of an abbreviation in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement.

6.Footnotes. Type footnotes, denoted with an asterisk, at the bottom of the page on which they are cited (do not confuse footnotes with references). Footnotes that contain information from articles that have been submitted but not accepted should be cited as “unpublished observations.” Written permission from the source should be provided.

7.Units of Measurement and Symbols. Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units; temperatures, in degrees Celsius (°C); blood pressures, in millimeters of mercury (mmHg); and hematologic and clinical chemistry, in terms of the International System of Units (SI).

Study design
•Clearly state the main study objective(s).
•Provide an overview of the main tests or experiments.
•Consider the sample size and whether you have enough subjects to reliably address the research question.
•Papers on clinical trials should include details regarding the sample size calculation (i.e., the expected effect size, the power, the level of statistical significance and one or two-sided tests). The sample size calculation should be reproduced independently.

Methods
•Describe the methods and apparatus in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to evaluate or reproduce the tests/experiments.
•If the methods have previously been published, provide only a reference or a reference and a brief description.
•Identify any drugs and chemicals, including the generic name, the dosage and the route of administration. State the form in which the drug was used (salt or base), the amount given in relation to body weight, and the route of administration; if injected, state the volume and the rate of injection. State the frequency and the time of additional doses.
•Please provide the manufacturer’s name and address for equipment, drugs and chemicals. This information should not be presented in a separate section. Credit the suppliers of drugs, equipment, and other materials described at length in the paper in parentheses at the first mention, giving the specific product name and the model number (if applicable), the company name, and the company location (city, state, and country).

Analysis
•Clearly state and define the main outcome measure(s).
•Briefly state the statistical methods used during the analysis if they are standard. New methods should be described with justification.
 
Results
Keep the Results section brief. Describe the baseline characteristics or the condition of the patients or animals. Focus on the important results, i.e., the results that help to address the research question. Present the majority of the data in figures or tables rather than in the text. Use the text to emphasize or summarize the most important observations. Present both the positive and the relevant negative results.

Discussion
At the beginning of the Discussion, summarize the main results and show how they address the research question. Make sure that the conclusions are consistent with the results and are pertinent to the research question. Describe the limitations of the study and/or analysis, and discuss the possible implications of your conclusions. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study. Try to explain any contradictory or unexpected results or discrepancies using previous findings.

Acknowledgements
All acknowledgements should be grouped into one paragraph and placed after the Discussion. Only acknowledge those who have made substantial contributions to the study.

References
Number the references consecutively in the order in which they first appear in the text. Use full size Arabic numerals in square brackets. List all authors when there are six or fewer. When there are more than six authors, list only the first three and then add et al.
The references should conform to the style used in Index Medicus (Vancouver Style), as shown in the following examples:

1. Standard Journal Article
•Ahn SS, Kim YJ, Hur J, et al. Preparing first-year radiology residents and assessing their readiness for on-call responsibilities: results over 5 years. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2009; 192: 539-44.
•Akgun M, Mirici A, Ucar EY, Kantarci M, Araz O, Gorguner M. Silicosis in Turkish denim sandblasters. Occup Med 2006; 26: 1234-40.

2. Book by One or More Authors (including specific page numbers)
•Angelini P. Coronary artery anomalies: A comprehensive approach. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 25-150.

3. Chapter in a Book
•Bourbon J, Henrion-Caude A, Gaultier C. Molecular basis of lung development. In: Gibson GJ, Geddes DM, Costable U, Sterk PJ, Corrin B, eds. Respiratory Medicine. 3rd Edn. Elsevier Science, Edinburgh/Philadelphia, 2002; pp. 64-81.

4. Websites should be listed with the references and not in the text. Websites should only be used when an original citation is unavailable. Citations should be listed as follows:
•WHO. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). www.who.int/csr/sars/en/index.html Date last updated: June 1 2004. Date last accessed: June 1 2004. Work that has not yet been accepted for publication and personal communications should not appear in the reference list.

5. Abstract in a Journal Supplement
•Shernan SK, Sugeng L, Weinert L. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of prosthetic valves: Initial experience with a matrix transesophageal transducer [abstract]. Circulation 2007;116(16 Suppl II):II-400.

Tables
Tables should be created and inserted into the text document using the “Table” and the “Insert Table” functions in your word processing package. DO NOT supply tables in a separate file. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals.
Limit the decimals to a sensible number. Large tables should be avoided due to space restrictions; otherwise, they could be split. Please provide a clear footnote for all tables, making sure that ALL abbreviations and symbols are defined. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in the footnotes. Identify the statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation or standard error of the mean. Do not submit tables that merely repeat information in the text. Provide permissions to use data from other published or unpublished sources.

Figures
All submitted figures must be numbered and titled. Whether the figure consists of images, drawings, or graphs, we recommend that no more than four components be used for a given figure (e.g., a, b, c, d). When there are figure subunits, DO NOT label them on the images.
Figure Legend(s): This (these) should be placed at the end of the manuscript.
Illustrations: General Information (for details, see the Digital Image Guide). Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and even throughout and should contrast with the background; they should be large enough to be legible when reduced for publication and should be added after the images are scanned to the proper resolution. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters that are used in the photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends and not on the illustrations themselves.
Privacy and Confidentiality: Avoid photographs of patients; if such photographs are used, the subjects must not be identifiable (masking their eyes is inadequate). Figures should not include any written patient identification, including names, initials, and hospital numbers. Photos or illustrations that might in any way reveal the identity of a patient must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph; moreover, the patient should be shown the manuscript and should be told if the manuscript will be available on the Internet as well as in the print publication. Cite each figure in the text in consecutive order. If a figure has been previously published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Legends for Illustrations: Legends for illustrations should be double-spaced, on a separate page from the text or the tables, and with Arabic numbers that correspond to the illustrations. Supply a detailed explanation of each figure. Define all symbols, arrows, or legends that are used to identify parts of the illustrations. For photomicrographs, explain the internal scale and identify the staining method.