Journal Menu
Submit Manuscript via ScholarOne

EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education
Volume 5, Issue 3 (August 2009), pp. 235-245

DOI: 10.12973/eurasia.2009.00146a

Downloaded 3130 times.

Research Article

Published online on Jul 12, 2016

How to reference this article?


Barriers to the Successful Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

Khalid Abdullah Bingimlas


The use of ICT in the classroom is very important for providing opportunities for students to learn to operate in an information age. Studying the obstacles to the use of ICT in education may assist educators to overcome these barriers and become successful technology adopters in the future. This paper provides a meta-analysis of the relevant literature that aims to present the perceived barriers to technology integration in science education. The findings indicate that teachers had a strong desire for to integrate ICT into education; but that, they encountered many barriers. The major barriers were lack of confidence, lack of competence, and lack of access to resources. Since confidence, competence and accessibility have been found to be the critical components of technology integration in schools, ICT resources including software and hardware, effective professional development, sufficient time, and technical support need to be provided to teachers. No one component in itself is sufficient to provide good teaching. However, the presence of all components increases the possibility of excellent integration of ICT in learning and teaching opportunities. Generally, this paper provides information and recommendation to those responsible for the integration of new technologies into science education.

Keywords: Science Teaching, ICT, Integration, Barriers, Professional Development, Review 

  1. Al-Alwani, A. (2005). Barriers to Integrating Information Technology in Saudi Arabia Science Education. Doctoral dissertation, the University of Kansas, Kansas.
  2. Albirini, A. (2006). Teachers' attitudes toward information and communication technologies: The case of Syrian EFL teachers. Computers & Education, 47, 373-398.
  3. Alhamd, Alotaibi, Motwaly, & Zyadah (2004). Education in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Alroshed press.
  4. Almohaissin, I. (2006). Introducing computers into Saudi Arabia secondary school science teaching: Some problems and possible solutions. Unpublished paper.
  5. Al-Oteawi, S. M. (2002). The perceptions of administrators and teachers in utilizing information technology in instruction, administrative work, technology planning and staff development in Saudi Arabia. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University, Ohio.
  6. Balanskat, A., Blamire, R., & Kefala, S. (2006). A review of studies of ICT impact on schools in Europe: European Schoolnet.
  7. Beggs, T. A. (2000, April 9-11, 2000). Influences and barriers to the adoption of instructional technology. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference, Murfreesboro, TN.
  8. Bransford, J., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  9. British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (Becta) (2003). Primary schools - ICT and standards. Retrieved June 13, 2008, from
  10. British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (Becta) (2004). A review of the research literature on barriers to the uptake of ICT by teachers Retrieved August 13, 2008, from
  11. Cox, M., Preston, C., & Cox, K. (1999a). What factors support or prevent teachers from using ICT in their classrooms? Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. Retrieved August 2, 2008, from
  12. Cox, M., Preston, C., & Cox, K. (1999b). What motivates teachers to use ICT? Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. Retrieved August 2, 2008, from
  13. Dawes, L. (2001). What stops teachers using new technology? In M. Leask (Ed.), Issues in Teaching using ICT (pp. 61-79). London: Routledge.
  14. Earle, R. S. (2002). The integration of instructional technology into public education: Promises and challenges. ET Magazine, 42(1), 5-13.
  15. Empirica (2006). Benchmarking access and use of ICT in European schools 2006: Final report from Head Teacher and Classroom Teacher Surveys in 27 European countries. Germany: European Commission.
  16. Ertmer, P. (1999). Addressing first-and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), 47- 61.
  17. Gillespie, H. (2006). Unlocking learning and teaching with ICT : Identifying and overcoming barriers. London: David Fulton.
  18. Gomes, C. (2005). Integration of ICT in science teaching: A study performed in Azores, Portugal. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.
  19. Grabe, M., & Grabe, C. (2007). Integrating technology for meaningful learning (5th ed.). Boston, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
  20. Grimus, M. (2000, 21 - 25 Aug ). ICT and multimedia in the primary school. Paper presented at the 16th conference on educational uses of information and communication technologies, Beijing, China.
  21. Iding, M., Crosby, M. E., & Speitel, T. (2002). Teachers and technology: Beliefs and practices. International Journal of Instructional Media, 29(2), 153-171.
  22. Kelleher, P. (2000). A review of recent developments in the use of information communication technologies (ICT) in science classrooms. Australian Science Teachers Journal, 46(1), 33-38.
  23. Korte, W. B., & Hüsing, T. (2007). Benchmarking access and use of ICT in European schools 2006: Results from Head Teacher and A Classroom Teacher Surveys in 27 European countries. eLearning Papers, 2(1), 1-6.
  24. Lefebvre, S., Deaudelin, D., & Loiselle, J. (2006, 27th - 30th November). ICT implementation stages of primary school teachers: The practices and conceptions of teaching and learning. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education National Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
  25. Lewis, S. (2003). Enhancing teaching and learning of science through use of ICT: Methods and materials. School Science Review, 84(309), 41-51.
  26. Murphy, C. (2006). The impact of ICT on primary science In P. Warwick, E. Wilson & M. Winterbottom (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Primary Science with ICT (pp. 13-32). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
  27. Newhouse, P. (2002). Literature review: The impact of ICT on learning and teaching, Perth, Western Australia: Department of Education.
  28. Newton, L., & Rogers, L. (2003). Thinking frameworks for planning ICT in science lessons. School Science Review, 84(309), 113-119.
  29. Osborne, J., & Collins, S. (2000). Pupils’ and parents’ views of the school science curriculum. London: King's College London.
  30. Osborne, J., & Hennessy, S. (2003). Literature review in science education and the role of ICT: Promise, problems and future directions. London: Futurelab.
  31. Özden, M. (2007). Problems with science and technology education in Turkey. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 3(2), 157-161.
  32. Pelgrum, W. J. (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: results from a worldwide educational assessment. Computers & Education, 37, 163-178.
  33. Pickersgill, D. (2003). Effective use of the Internet in science teaching. School Science Review, 84(309), 77-86.
  34. Romeo, G. I. (2006). Engage, empower, enable: Developing a shared vision for technology in education In M. S. Khine (Ed.), Engaged Learning and Emerging Technologies. The Netherlands: Springer Science.
  35. Sager, A. (2001). Evaluation of educational software for high school students in Saudi Arabia. Unpublished master’s thesis, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  36. Schoepp, K. (2005). Barriers to technology integration in a technology-rich environment. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 2(1), 1-24.
  37. Shamatha, J. H., Peressini, D., & Meymaris, K. (2004). Technology-supported mathematics activities situated within an effective learning environment theoretical framework. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 3(4), 362-381.
  38. Sicilia, C. (2005). The Challenges and Benefits to Teachers' Practices in Constructivist Learning Environments Supported by Technology. Unpublished master’s thesis, McGill University, Montreal.
  39. Skinner, N. C., & Preece, P. F. W. (2003). The use of information and communications technology to support the teaching of science in primary schools. International Journal of Science Education, 25(2), 205-219.
  40. Toprakci, E. (2006). Obstacles at integration of schools into information and communication technologies by taking into consideration the opinions of the teachers and principals of primary and secondary schools in Turkey. Journal of Instructional Science and Technology (e-JIST), 9(1), 1-16.
  41. Watson, G. (1999). Barriers to the integration of the Internet into teaching and learning: Professional development. Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Regional Internet Conference on Operational Technologies.
  42. Wong, A. F. L., Quek, C.-L., Divaharan, S., Liu, W.-C., Peer, J., & Williams, M. D. (2006). Singapore students' and teachers' perceptions of computer-supported Project Work classroom learning environments. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(4), 449-479.
  43. Yelland, N. (2001). Teaching and learning with information and communication technologies (ICT) for numeracy in the early childhood and primary years of schooling. Australia: Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs.
  44. Zhang, P., & Aikman, S. (2007). Attitudes in ICT Acceptance and use. In J. Jacko (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction, Part I (pp. 1021-1030). Syracuse, NY: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.