**EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education**
Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2017), pp. 741-770

DOI: 10.12973/eurasia.2017.00641a

Downloaded 1783 times.

**Research Article**

*Published online on Dec 09, 2016*

How to reference this article?

**The Effect of Blended Learning in Mathematics Course**

Ya-Wen Lin, Chih-Lung Tseng & Po-Jui Chiang

With the advent of the digital age, traditional didactic teaching and online learning have been modified and gradually replaced by “Blended Learning.” The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of blended learning pedagogy on junior high school student learning achievement and the students’ attitudes toward mathematics. To investigate the outcomes of the combination of Moodle online teaching platform and traditional instruction, a quasi-experiment was conducted using a pre-test–post-test control group design. ANCOVA and MANCOVA analyses showed that the blended learning experience benefitted students in the experimental group by having a positive effect not only on the learning outcomes, but also on their attitudes toward studying mathematics in a blended environment. Preliminary results indicated that male students and high-ability students were more motivated in the blended learning environment. Students gave positive feedback on the use of the Moodle learning platform for mathematics after experiencing blended learning.

Keywords: ability differences; blended Learning; gender; mathematics attitude; Moodle.

- Abramovitz, B., Berezina, M., Bereman, A.,& Shvartsman, L. (2012). A blended learning approach in mathematics. In A. Ajuan, M. A. Huertas, S. Trenholm, and C. Streegmann (Eds),
*Teaching mathematics online: Emergent technology and methodologies*(pp. 22-42). doi: 10.4018/978-1-60960-875-0.ch002 - Aiken, R. L. (1970). Attitudes towards mathematics.
*Review of Educational Research, 40*(4), 551-596. - Aiken, R. L. (1976). Update on attitudes and other affective variables in learning mathematics.
*Review of Educational Research, 46*(2), 293-311. doi: 10.2307/1170042 - Aiken, R. L. (2000).
*Psychological testing and assessment*. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. - Alavi, M., Marakas, G. M., & Yoo, Y. (2002). A comparative study of distributed learning environments on learning outcomes.
*Information Systems Research, 13*(4), 404-415. - Allen, J., & Gonzalez, K. (1998).
*There's room for me here.*Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. - Ally, M. (2004). Foundations of educational theory for online learning.
*Theory and practice of online learning, 2*, 15-44. - Al‐Qahtani, A. A., & Higgins, S. E. (2013). Effects of traditional, blended and e‐learning on students' achievement in higher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(3), 220-234. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00490.x
- Atanasova-Pacemska, T., Pacemska, S., & Zlatanovska, B. (2012). Moodle as a teaching tools in mathematics-case study in Goce Delcev University, Stip.
*Yearbook, Faculty of computer sciences, Goce Delcev University, Stip, 1*(1). - Awodeyi, A. F., Akpan, E. T., & Udo, I. J. (2014). Enhancing teaching and learning of mathematics: adoption of blended learning pedagogy in University of Uyo.
*International Journal of Science and Research, 3*(11), 40-45. - Ayse, K. O. K. (2008). An online social constructivist tool: A secondary school experience in the developing world.
*Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 9*(7), 87-98. - Baillie, C., & Percoco, G. (2000). A study of present use and usefulness of computer-based learning at a technical university.
*European of Journal of Engineering Education, 25*(1), 33-43. doi: 10.1080/030437900308625 - Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
*Psychological Review, 84*(2), 191-215. doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.84.2.191 - Brandl, K. (2005). Are you ready to “Moodle”.
*Language Learning & Technology, 9*, 16-23. - Bringslid, O. (2002). Mathematical e-learning using interactive mathematics on the Web.
*European journal of engineering education, 27*(3), 249-255. doi: 10.1080/03043790210141564 - Cain-Caston, M. (1993). Parent and student attitudes toward mathematics as they relate to third grade mathematics achievement.
*Journal of Instructional Psychology, 20*(2), 96-101. - Chang, T. H. (2007).
*Use Moodle platform to implement nanotechnology curriculum: Take grade fifth as an example*(Unpublished master's thesis). National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan. - Chen, C. C. (2012).
*The study on learning efficiency by integrating e-Learning platform into math class for fifth-grade students*(Unpublished master's thesis). National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan. - Chen, D. J., & Lai,
__A. F. (2005).__*Internet and education*. New Taipei, Taiwan: National Open University. - Chen, T. L. (2007).
*Using TAM to explore applied Moodle on learning satisfaction and efficiency of free software teaching/learning*(Unpublished master's thesis). Dayeh University, Changhua, Taiwan. - Chen, Y., Lou, H., & Luo, W. (2001). Distance learning technology adoption: A motivation perspective.
*The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 42*(2), 38. - Chou, S. W., & Liu, C. H. (2005). Learning effectiveness in a web‐based virtual learning environment: A learner control perspective.
*Journal of Computer Assisted Learning*,*21*(1), 65-76. - Claire, M. F., & Gratt, B. (1995). The efficacy of computer assisted instruction: A meta-analysis.
*Journal of Educational Computing Research*,*12*(3), 219-242. - Cohen, J. (1988).
*Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences*(2nd ed.). Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. - Collins, T. (1996).
*The effects of computer-assisted algebra instruction on achievement, mathematics anxiety levels and attitudes toward personal use of computers of students in a historically black University*(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. - Cook, T. D., Campbell, D. T., & Day, A. (1979).
*Quasi-experimentation: Design & analysis issues for field settings*. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved from http://dickyh.staff.ugm.ac.id/wp/wp-content/uploads/2009/ringkasan%20buku%20quasi-experimentakhir.pdf - Corbo, N. J. (1984).
*Mathematics attitude and achievement in grades five through seven in a southcentral Pennsylvania school district*. Mich, Iran: UMI. - Dalton, D. W., & Hannafin, M. J. (1988). The effects of computer-assisted and traditional mastery methods on computation accuracy and attitudes.
*Journal of Education Research, 82*(1), 27-33. doi: 10.1080/00220671.1988.10885861 - DeTure, M. (2004). Cognitive style and self-efficacy: Predicting student success in online distance education.
*American Journal of Distance Education*,*18*(1), 21-38. doi: 10.1207/s15389286ajde1801_3 - Dougiamas, M. (1998).
*A journey into constructivism*. Retrieved from__https://dougiamas.com/archives/a-journey-into-constructivism__ - Erickson, G., & Farkas, S. (1991). Prior experience and gender differences in science achievement.
*The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 37,*225-239. - Erickson, G. A., & Erickson, L. J. (1984) Achievement: Evidence, explanations, and implications.
*Science**Education, 68,*63-89. doi: 10.1002/sce.3730680202 - Fennema, E., & Sherman, J. A. (1976). Fennema-Sherman mathematics attitudes scales: Instruments designed to measure attitudes toward the learning of mathematics by females and males.
*Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 7*(5), 324-326. doi: 10.2307/748467 - Garson, G. D. (2005).
*Quantitative research in public administration - GLM (Univariate), ANOVA, and ANCOVA - Course material.*Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. - Hooper (1992). Cooperative learning and computer-based instruction.
*Educational Technology Research and Development, 40*(3), 21-38. doi:10.1007/BF02296840 - Hsu, H. (2009, November). The study of effects using Moodle as a teaching-platform to incorporate percentage-learning in the elementary school. In D. R. Liu (Chair),
*Computer and Network Technologies on Education*. Symposium conducted at the International Conference on Computer and Network Technologies on Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan. - Hung, C. H. (2007).
*The effectiveness of an interactive website in teaching a common factors and multiples course at the elementary level*(Unpublished master's thesis). National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan. - Iozzi, F., & Osimo, G. (2004).
*The virtual classroom in blended learning mathematics undergraduate courses*. ICME10. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.485.2992&rep=rep1&type=pdf - Johnson, S. (1987). Gender differences in science: Parallels in interest, experience, and performance.
*International Journal of Science Education, 9,*467-481. doi: 10.1080/0950069870090405 - Jovanovich, J., & King, S. S. (1998). Boys and girls in the performance-based science classroom: Who’s doing the performing?
*American Educational Research Journal, 35,*477- 496. doi: 10.2307/1163445 - Kelly, A. (1988). Sex stereotypes and school science: A three-year follow-up.
*Educational Studies, 14*, 151-163. doi: 10.1080/0305569880140203 - Köğce, D., Yıldız, C., Aydın, M., & Altındağ, R. (2009). Examining elementary school students' attitudes towards mathematics in terms of some variables.
*Procedia, 1*(1), 291–295. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.053 - Kotzer, Shulamit, & Elran, Y. (2012). Learning and teaching with Moodle-based E-learning environments, combining learning skills and content in the fields of Math and Science & Technology. In
*Proceeding of 1st Moodle Research Conference*(pp. 122-131). Crete-Greece: Heraklion. - Leidner, D. E., & Fuller, M. (1997). Improving student learning of conceptual information: GSS supported collaborative learning vs. individual constructive learning.
*Decision Support Systems*,*20*(2), 149-163. doi: 10.1016/S0167-9236(97)00004-3 - Li, Y. C. (2010).
*The study of the impacts of web-based learning on elementary students' mathematics achievement and attitude*(Unpublished master's thesis). National Pingtung Teachers College, Pingtung, Taiwan. - Lin, H. W., & Chen, L. C. (2007). The effects of using Moodle online learning on the sixth-grade science course
*.*In S. M. Chang (Eds.),*Proceedings of the 2007 Conference / Research & Development in Technology Education*(pp. 23-30). Kaohsiung, Taiwan: National Kaohsiung Normal University. - Lindberg, S. M., Hyde, J. S., Petersen, J. L., & Linn, M. C. (2010). New trends in gender and mathematics performance: A meta-analysis.
*Psychological Bulletin**, 136*(6), 1123–1135. doi: 10.1037/a0021276 - Liu, F. C. (2010).
*An effectiveness of Moodle e-Learning services designed for geometry learning in elementary school*(Unpublished master's thesis). Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. - Lu, J., & Law, N. W. Y. (2011). Understanding collaborative learning behavior from Moodle log data.
*Interactive Learning Environments, 20*(5), 451-466. - Marsh, J., & Drexler, P. (2001).
*How to design effective blended learning*. Sunnyvale, CA: Brandon-Hall. - Martín-Blas, T., & Serrano-Fernández, A. (2009). The role of new technologies in the learning process: Moodle as a teaching tool in Physics.
*Computers & Education, 52*(1), 35-44. - Mato Vázquez, M. D., & de la Torre Fernández, E. (2009). Evaluación de las actitudes hacia las matemáticas y el rendimiento académico. In M. J. González, M. T. González, & J. Murillo (Eds.),
*Investigación en Educación Matemática XIII*(pp. 285-300). Santander, Spain: SEIEM. Retrieved from http://funes.uniandes.edu.co/1654/1/307_Mato2009Evaluacion_SEIEM13.pdf - Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009).
*Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies*. Retrieved from the ERIC database. (ED505824) - Merrill, M. D. (1994).
*Instructional design theory*. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. - Mohamed, L., & Waheed, H. (2011). Secondary students' attitude towards mathematics in a selected school of Maldives.
*International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1*(15), 277–281. - Neal, J. C., & Moore, K. (1992). The very hungry caterpillar meets Beowulf in secondary classrooms.
*Journal of Reading,**35*(4), 290-296. - Neale, D. (1969). The role of attitudes in learning mathematics.
*The Arithmetic Teacher, 16*(8), 631-641. - Nicolaidou, M., & Philippou, G. (2003). Attitudes towards mathematics, self-efficacy and achievement in problem solving. In M. A Mariotti. (Eds.),
*European Research in Mathematics Education III*(pp. 1-11). Pisa, Italy: University of Pisa. Retrieved from http://fractus.uson.mx/Papers/CERME/TG2_draft/TG2_nicolaidou_corr.pdf - Osborn, S. (2001). Picture books for young adult readers.
*The ALAN Review, 28*(3), 24. - Palincsar, A. S. (1998). Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning.
*Annual Review of Psychology, 49*, 345-375.doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.345 - Piccoli, G., Ahmad, R., & Ives, B. (2001). Web-based virtual learning environments: A research framework and a preliminary assessment of effectiveness in basic IT skills training.
*MIS Quarterly*, 401-426. doi: 10.2307/3250989 - Powers, D. E. & Rock, D. A. (1999). Effects of coaching on SAT I: Reasoning test scores.
*Journal of Educational Measurement, 36*, 93-118. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1999.tb00549.x - Samuels, W. D. (1983).
*Mathematics achievement and attitude in grades six through eight in Lebanon*. Mich, Iran: UMI. - Scafidi, T., & Bui, K. (2010). Gender similarities in math performance from middle school through high school.
*Journal of**Instructional Psychology, 37*(3), 252–255. - Shachar, M., & Neumann, Y. (2010). Twenty years of research on the academic performance differences between traditional and distance learning: Summative meta-analysis and trend examination.
*Journal of Online Learning and Teaching*,*6*(2), 318-334. - Smith, J. M. (2001).
*Blended learning: An old friend gets a new name*. Retrieved from http://www.gwsae.org/ExecutiveUpdate/2001/March/blended.htm - Somenarain, L., Akkaraju, S., & Gharbaran, R. (2010). Student perceptions and learning outcomes in asynchronous and synchronous online learning environments in a biology course.
*Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6*(2), 353-356. - Sriampai, P. (1992).
*Attitude toward mathematics, mathematics anxiety, and mathematics achievement related to gender and academic program*. Mich, Iran: UMI. - Šumonja, S., Veličković, V., & Šubarević, T. (2015). Applying ICT in the teaching of mathematics in high school.
*IMVI Open Mathematical Education Notes, 5*(1), 31-46. - Tan, N. C. (1992). Analysis and discussion of math and problem-solving abilities of children.
*Journal of National Taipei Teachers College*,*5*, 619-687. - Tsai, C. C. (2000).
*The impacts of web-based learning on elementary students' science achievement and attitude*(Unpublished master's thesis). National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan. - Tsai, S. L., & Walberg, H. J. (1983). Mathematics achievement and attitude productivity in high school.
*Journal of Educational Research, 76*(5), 265-272. doi: 10.1080/00220671.1983.10885464 - Tsaur, T. P., & Chou, W. C. (1997).
*Study on the attitude scale for elementary mathematics*(Rep. NSC-86-2511-S-153-001). Taipei, Taiwan: National Science Council. - Wang, Y. Z., & Yu, C. Z. (2012). A study of influence on learning motivation and effectiveness with the Moodle learning platform in mathematics area's remedial instruction-example of grade 3
*.*In C. F. Wang (Eds.),*Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on Digital Content and Virtual Learning Conference*. Pingtung, Taiwan: National Pingtung University. - Wei, L. M. (1988).
*Elementary math anxiety and math attitudes and relationship between mathematics achievement and effect of mathematics learning community consultative research*(Unpublished master's thesis). National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. - White, B. (2010). Using ICT to enhance curriculum opportunities for students in rural and remote schools.
*Australian Educational Computing, 25*(2), 27-30. - Wiginton, B. L. (2013).
*Flipped instruction: An investigation into the effect of learning environment on student self-efficacy, learning style, and academic achievement in an algebra I classroom*(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. - Willett, H. G. (2002). Not one or the other but both: Hybrid course delivery using WebCT.
*The Electronic Library*,*20*(5), 413-419. doi: 10.1108/02640470210447847 - Wu, M. L. (2003).
*SPSS statistics applied learning practice: Questionnaire analysis & statistics*. Taipei, Taiwan: Kochi Castle Digital Technology. - Wu, W. S. (2008). The application of
*Moodle*on an EFL collegiate writing environment.*Journal of Education and Foreign Languages and Literature, 7*, 45-56. - Zakaria, E., & Daud, M. Y. (2013). The role of technology: Moodle as a teaching tool in a graduate mathematics education course.
*Asian Journal of Management Science & Education, 2*(4), 46-52. - Zou, J. P. (2005).
*E-Learning new world - Internet and learning*. Taipei, Taiwan: Tingmao.