Journal Menu
Submit Manuscript via ScholarOne

EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education
Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2017), pp. 2085-2093

DOI: 10.12973/eurasia.2017.01215a

Downloaded 504 times.

Research Article

Published online on May 09, 2017

How to reference this article?


Developing the Principal Technology Leadership Competency Indicators for Technical High Schools in K-12 in Taiwan

Wen-Jye Shyr


The purpose of this study was to develop principal technology leadership competency indicators for technical high schools in K-12 in Taiwan in order to improve the effectiveness of school administration and teaching. In the first part of the study, five experts in the technology leadership field are interviewed to explore the technology leadership theorem model. In the second part of the study, eighteen experts in technology leadership and principals of technical high schools are recruited as subjects. Using the Delphi technique, questionnaires are constructed to assess competency indicators for principal technology leadership. In the third part of the study, the data from the questionnaire are analyzed using a KS-test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks. Finally, six dimensions and thirty competency indicators of the principal technology leadership of technical high schools in K-12 in Taiwan were established.

Keywords: competency analysis, delphi technique, technology leadership, technical high school

  1. Bailey, G. (1997). What technology leaders need to know: The essential top 10 concepts for technology integration in the 21st century, Learning and Leading with Technology, 25(1), 57-62.
  2. Banoğlu, K. (2011). Principals’ Technology Leadership Competency and Technology Coordinator ship. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 11(1), 208-213.
  3. Cakir, R. (2012). Technology integration and technology leadership in schools as learning organizations, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(4), 273-282.
  4. Chao, C.Y., Liao, W.C., Chien, F.E. & Huang, Y.L. (2003). Construction of a competency analysis model for vocational high schools. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 2, 121-124.
  5. Delbecq, A.L., Ven, V. & Gustafson, D.H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning: a guide to nominal group and delphi processes. Scott Foresman and Comp., Glenview, IL.
  6. Flanagan, L. & Jacobsen, M. (2003). Technology leadership for the twenty-first century principal. Journal of Educational Ad­ministration, 41(2), 124-142.
  7. Georganne, S. (2005). Educator perceptions of principal technology leadership competencies. Dissertation of University of Oklahoma.
  8. Hall, G. (2001). Leading the charge. Principal Leadership, 1(9), 40-42.
  9. Holland, L. & Steward, T. (2000). A different divide: preparing tech-savvy leaders. Leadership, 30(1), 8-10.
  10. Hsiao, H.C., Chen, M.N. & Yang, H.S. (2008). Leadership of vocational high schools principals in curriculum reform: A case study in Taiwan, International Journal of Educational Development, 28(6), 669-686.
  11. Hung, Y.L. & Fua, C.S. (2010). Brand management model of vocational high schools in Taiwan, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4229-4233.
  12. ISTE (2002). National educational technology standards for administrators, International Society for Technology in Education, Retrieved July 6, 2015, from
  13. ISTE (2009). National Educational Technolgy Standards (NETS) for Administrators. International Society for Technology in Education, Retrieved July 6, 2015, from
  14. Jones, C.A. (2001). Tech support: preparing teachers to use technology. Principal Leadership, 1(9), 35-39.
  15. Kincaid, T. & Feldner, L. (2002). Leadership for technology integration: the role of principals and mentors. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 5(1), 75-80.
  16. Linstone, H.A. & Turoff, M. (1975). The Delphi method: techniques and applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  17. McClelland, D.C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than for intelligence. American Psychologist, 28, 1-14.
  18. Michael, S.O. (1998). Best practices in information technology (IT) management: Insight from K-12 schools’ technology au­dits. International Journal of Educational Management, 12(6), 277-288.
  19. Muhametjanova, G. & Cagiltay, K. (2016). Integrating technology into instruction at a public university in Kyrgyzstan: Barriers and enablers. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(10), 2657-2670.
  20. Prahalad, C.K. & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 79-90.
  21. Rifkin, K.I., Fineman, M. & Ruhnke, C.H. (1999). Developing technical managers: first you need a competency model. Research Technology Management, 42(2), 53-57.
  22. Shavelson, R.J. (1996). Statistical Reasoning for the Behavioral Sciences. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.
  23. Spencer, L.M. & Spencer, S.M. (1993). Competence at work, New York: Willy.
  24. Sujo-Montes, L. & Gallagher, L. (2010). School, technology, and society home-school communications and access. In R. Papa (Ed.), Technology leadership for school improvement London: Sage, 167-188.
  25. Young, S. (2002). Taking the Lead. Technology & Learning, 21(5), 26-34.