**EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education**
Volume 7, Issue 4 (November 2011), pp. 227-242

Downloaded 2117 times.

**Research Article**

*Published online on Jul 01, 2016*

How to reference this article?

**How do Students’ Mastery and Performance Goals Relate to Math Anxiety?**

Joseph M. Furner & Alyssa Gonzalez-DeHass

A changing, economically competitive world has necessitated reform in mathematics

education. Yet mathematics anxiety has been a prevalent concern among educators and

others in our society for decades. Some students tend to be more anxious about the

testing process and can often freeze up, others just cringe when they are confronted with

any form of computational exercise, or others dread taking math classes which can occur

in the elementary, middle, high, and even at the college levels. Educators, parents,

politicians, and others are trying to assess the cause for the apparent academic weakness of

mathematics, and solutions to the problem are being sought. Our focus in this paper is to

tease apart the underlying causes of math anxiety that result from a teacher’s instructional

practice, particularly how mastery and performance goals relate to the construct of math

anxiety, and how a teachers’ understanding of creating mastery-oriented classrooms can

help to prevent or reduce the anxiety students experience during mathematics. Research

indicates that classroom practices can influence the goals students adopt, and that

educators should strive to create mastery-oriented classrooms by examining the nature of

the tasks they assign students, the authority or degree they involve students in academic

decision-making, the types of evaluation and recognition they utilize, and the classroom

climate they create.

- Alexander, L., & Martray, C. (1989). The development of an abbreviated version of the mathematics anxiety rating scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 22, 143-150.
- Alexander, L., & Cobb, R. (1984, November). Identification of the dimensions and predictors of math anxiety among college students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 251 320)
- American Association of University Women. (1992). How schools shortchange girls. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women Educational Foundation.
- Ames, C. (1984). Achievement attributions and selfinstructions under competitive and individualistic goal structures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 478–487.
- Ames, C. (1990, April). The relationship of achievement goals to student motivation in classroom settings. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston.
- Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261- 271.
- Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.
- Anderman, E.M. (1997). Motivation and school reform. In M.L. Maehr and P.R. Pintrich’s (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Vol. 10: (pp. 303-337). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Anderman, E.M. & Young, A.J. (1994). Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, 811-831.
- Anton, W. D., & Klisch, M. C. (1995). Perspectives on mathematics anxiety and test anxiety.In C. D. Spielberger, & P. Vagg (Eds.), Test anxiety. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis Publishers.
- Archer, J. (1994). Achievement goals as a measure of motivation in university students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 430–446.
- Arem, C. A. (2003). Conquering math anxiety. 2nd Edition. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
- Aronson, E., Blaney, N., Stephan, C., Sikes, J., & Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Bernstein, J. D. (1992). Barriers to women entering the workforce: Math anxiety. NewJersey Equity Research Bulletin No. 3.
- Boaler, J. (2008). What's math got to do with it? Helping children learn to love their least favorite subject--and why it's important for America. New York, NY: Penguin Group (USA) Inc.
- Bong, M. (2009). Age-related differences in achievement goal differentiation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 879-896.
- Braund, M. & Reiss, M. (2006). Towards a more authentic science curriculum: The contribution of out-of-school learning. International Journal of Science Education, 28(12), 1373-1388.
- Brush, L. R. (1981). Some thoughts for teachers on mathematics anxiety. Arithmetic Teacher, 29(4), 37-39.
- Burns, M. (1998). Math: Facing an American phobia. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.
- Buxton, L. (1991). Math panic. Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann.
- Church, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 43–54.
- Conroy, D.E. & Elliot, A.J. (2004). Fear of failure and achievement goals in sport: Addressing the issue of the chicken and the egg. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17(3), 271-285.
- Crawford, C. G. (1980). Math without fear. New York: New Visionpoints/Vision Books.
- Cury, F., Elliot, A., Sarrazin, P., Da Fonseca, D., & Rufo, M. (2002). The trichotomous achievement goal model and intrinsic motivation: A sequential meditational analysis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 473-481.
- Dawson, R. (n.d.). Setting the record straight on H1 visa legislation. An Opinion Piece by the Information Technology Industry Council. Retrieved on July 20, 2007 at http://www.itic.org/policy/h1b_000628.html
- Conroy, D.E. & Elliot, A.J. (2004). Fear of failure and achievement goals in sport: Addressing the issue of the chicken and the egg. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17(3), 271-285.
- Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affectinglearning.American Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048.
- Dweck, C.S., & Leggett, E.L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.
- Eddy, L. (1985). The nature and treatment of mathematics anxiety. Requirements for course S591--Exit Project, Indiana University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 277 595)
- Elliot, A.J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169- 189.
- Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 281–232.
- Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,70, 461–475.
- Elliot, A.J. & McGregor, H.A. (2001). A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501-519.
- Elliot, A.J. McGregor, H.A, and Gable, S. (1999). Achievement goals, study strategies, and exam performance: A mediational analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 549-563.
- Elliot, P. (1983). Question: Is math anxiety a figment of the imagination? Answer: Never! (A neurological glimpse at mathematics anxiety). International Journal of Mathematics Education in Science and Technology, 14, 777-784.
- Finney, S.J., Pieper, S.L. & Barron, K.E. (2004). Examining the psychometric properties of the achievement goal questionnaire in a general academic context. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(2), 365-382.
- Furner, J. M. & Duffy, M.L. (2002). Equity for all students in the new millennium: Disabling math anxiety. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(2), 67-74.
- Gallup, G. H. (2005). Math Problematic for U.S. Teens: Youth Survey Poll, Retrieved on Novermber 16, 2010 at: http://www.gallup.com/poll/16360/mathproblematic-us-teens.aspx
- Gerig, D. L. (1988). Sex differences in mathematics achievement: What are they and why do they exist? Master's Project, Indiana University at South Bend. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 296 907)
- Goldberg, M., & Harvey, J. (1983). A nation at risk: The report of the national commission on excellence in Education. Phi Delta Kappan, September 1983. Report in Schultz, Education 84/85. Guildford, CT: Pushkin, 1985, 74-74.
- Hackett, G. (1985). Role of mathematics self-efficacy in the choice of math-related majors of college women and men: A path analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32(1), 47-56.
- Hagen, A. S., & Weinstein, C. E. (1995). Achievement goals, self-regulated learning, and the role of classroom context. In P. R. Pintrich (Ed.), New directions for teaching and learning (pp. 43–55). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Harper, N. J. W. (1994). The effect of a mathematics methods course on elementary preservice teachers' beliefs about the standards and their level of mathematics anxiety. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.
- Hendel, D. D., & Davis, S. O. (1978). Effectiveness of an intervention strategy for reducing mathematics anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25, 429-434.
- Hilton, P., & Pedersen, J. (1983). Fear no more: An adult approach to mathematics. Menlo Park, CA: AddisonWesley.
- Hinds, V, Hom, K, & Brookshaw, K. (2002). Making waves. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on the FirstYear Experience.
- Hyde, J. S., Fennema, E., & Lamon, S. J. (1990). Gender differences in mathematics performance. Psych Bull, 107, 139-155.
- Jacob, E. (1999). Cooperative learning in context: An educational innovation in everyday classrooms. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
- Jago, C. ( 2002). Cohesive Writing: Why Concept Is Not Enough. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED462691 ).
- Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R.T. (1995). Cooperative learning and nonacademic outcomes of schooling: The other side of the report card. In J.E. Pedersen & A.D. Digby (Eds.), Secondary schools and cooperative learning: Theories, models, and strategies. New York: Garland.
- Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T. & Smith, K.A. (1995). Cooperative learning and individual student achievement in secondary schools. In J.E. Pedersen & A.D. Digby (Eds.), Secondary schools and cooperative learning: Theories, models, and strategies. New York: Garland.
- Kaplan, A., Gheen, M., & Midgley, C. (2002). Classroom goal structure and student disruptive behavior. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 191-211.
- Karabenick, S.A. (2004). Perceived achievement goal structure and college student help seeking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 569-581.
- Kohn, A. (1990). You know what they say. New York: HarperCollins.
- Kramarski, B., Mevarech, Z. R., & Arami, M. (2002). The Effects of Metacognitive Instruction on Solving Mathematical Authentic Tasks. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 49 (2), 225-50.
- Krovetz, M., Casterson, D., McKowen, C. & Willis, T. (1993). Beyond show and tell. Educational Leadership, 50(7), 73- 76.
- Kumar, D., & Voldrich, J.F. (1994). Situated cognition in second grade science: literature books for authentic contexts. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 6(2) , 1- 10.
- Kutner, L. (1992, August 13). Teachers and parents who are afraid of math can pass that anxiety to the next generation. The New York Times, pp. B4, C12.
- Lane, N. (1999). International mathematical olympiad 2001 USA. Paper presented at the Secretary’s Conference Room of the U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved on September 27, 2005 at: http://www.ostp.gov/html/ 0022_3.html.
- Lau, S. & Nie, Y. (2008). Interplay between personal goals and classroom goal structures in predicting student outcomes: A multilevel analysis of person-context interactions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 15-29.
- Linnenbrink, E.A. (2005). The dilemma of performanceapproach goals: The use of multiple goal contexts to promote students’ motivation and learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 197-213
- Locke, E.A. & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35- year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.
- Maehr, M.L. & Anderman, E.M. (1993). Reinventing schools for early adolescents: Emphasizing task goals. The Elementary School Journal, 93(5), 593-610.
- McGregor, H.A. & Elliot, A.J. (2002). Achievement goals as predictors of achievement-relevant processes prior to task engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 381-395.
- Meece, J.L. (1991). The classroom context and students’ motivational goals. In M.L. Maehr and P.R. Pintrich’s (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Vol. 7: (pp. 261-285). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 514–523.
- Meece, J.L. & Miller, S.D. (1999). Changes in elementary school children’s achievement goals for reading and writing: Results of a longitudinal and an intervention study. Scientific Studies of Reading,3(3), 207-229.
- Middleton, M. J., & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An underexplored aspect of goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 710–718.
- Midgley, C., Anderman, E., & Hicks, L. (1995). Differences between elementary and middle school teachers and students: A goal theory approach. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 15(1), 90-113.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1995a). Mathematics anxiety [Supplemental Brochure]. Reston, VA: Author.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1995b). Professional assessment standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics (2nd Ed.). Reston, VA: Author.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2006). Curriculum focal points for prekindergarten through grade 8 mathematics: A quest for coherence. Reston, VA: Author.
- National Resource Council. (1989). Everybody counts: A report to the nation on the future of mathematics education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
- Neunzert, H. (2000). Will Mathematics and the Mathematicians be able to contribute essentially in shaping the future? Paper presentation at the 3ECM Conference Round Table Discussion on Shaping the 21st Century, Barcelona, Spain, July 11-14, 2000.
- Oberlin, L. (1982). How to teach children to hate mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 82, 261.
- Paris, S.G. & Paris, A.H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educationa Psychologist, 36(2), 89-101.
- Patrick, H., Anderman, L.H., Ryan, A.M., Edeline, K.C., & Midgley, C. (2001). Teachers’ communication of goal orientations in four fifth-grade classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 102(1), 35-58.
- Pejouhy, N. H. (1990). Teaching math for the 21st century. Phi Delta Kappan, 72(1), 76.
- Perry, N.E., Vandekamp, K.O., Mercer, L,K., & Nordby, C.J. (2002). Investigating teacher-student interactions that foster self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 37(1), 5-15.
- Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In Advances in Motivation and Achievement, (Vol. 7). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Proga, R. (2005). Math for the anxious: Building basic skills. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
- Posamentier, A. S., Smith, B. S. & Stepelman, J. (2009). Teaching secondary school mathematics: Techniques and teaching units, 8th Ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
- Putwain, D.W. & Daniels, R.A. (2010). Is the relationship between competence beliefs and test anxiety influenced by goal orientation? Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 8-13.
- Rawsthorne, L. J., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 326–344.
- Rech, J. F. (1994). A comparison of the mathematics attitudes of black students according to grade level, gender, and academic achievement. Journal of Negro Education, 63(2), 212-220.
- Reilly, L. (1992). Study to examine math anxiety for students who are single parents and those enrolled in nontraditional career preparation programs. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 359 380)
- Resnick, H., Viehe, J., & Segal, S. (1982). Is math anxiety a local phenomenon? A study of prevalence and dimensionality. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(1), 39- 47.
- Rounds, J. B., & Hendel, D. D. (1980). Mathematics anxiety attitudes toward mathematics. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 13(2), 83-89.
- Rubin, N. (1988, June). Math stinks! Parents Magazine, 63(6), 132-139.
- Ruedy, E., & Nirenberg, S. (1990). Where do I put the decimal point?: How to conquer math anxiety and increase your facility with numbers. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
- Ryan, A.M., Gheen, M.H., & Midgley, C. (1998). Why do some students avoid asking for help? An examination of the interplay among students’ academic efficacy, teachers’ social-emotional role, and the classroom goal structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3), 528-535.
- Ryan, K.E., Ryan, A.M., Arbuthnot, K., & Samuels, M. (2007). Students’ motivation for standardized math exams. Educational Researchers, 36(1), 5-13.
- Sarason, I. G. (1987). Test anxiety, cognitive interference, and performance. In R. E. Snow & M. J. Farr (Eds.), Aptitude, learning, and instruction: Volume 3: Conative and affective process analyses (pp. 131-142). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Sarason, S. (1993). The case for change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Schack, G.D. (1993). Involving students in authentic research. Educational Leadership, 50(7), 29-31.
- Schmidt, W. H. (1998). Changing mathematics in the U.S.: policy implications from the third international mathematics and science study. Presentation at the 76th Annual meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Washington, D.C., April 3, 1998.
- Schrenko, L. (1994). Structuring a learner-centered school. Pallatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing.
- Schunk, D.H. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 71- 86.
- Schunk, D.H. (2001). Social cognitive theory and selfregulated learning. In B.J. Zimmerman & D.H.Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives. (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Schunk, D.H. & Zimmerman, B.J. (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence. Educational Psychologist, 32(4), 195-208.
- Sherard, W. H. (1981). Math anxiety in the classroom. The Clearing House, 75(5), 280-284.
- Shih, S. (2005). Role of achievement goals in children’s learning in Taiwan. Journal of Educational Research, 98(5), 310–319.
- Sideridis, G.D. (2008). The regulation of affect, anxiety, and stressful arousal from adopting mastery-avoidance goal orientations. Stress and Health, 24, 55-69.
- Skaalvik, E. M. (1997). Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, self-perceptions, and anxiety. Journal of EducationalPsychology, 89, 71–81.
- Slavin, R.E. (1991). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning. Educational Leadership, 48(5), 71-77, 79-82.
- Slavin, R.E. (1995). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Steen, L.A. (1999). Numeracy: The new literacy for a datadrenched society. Educational Leadership, October, 8-13.
- Stipek, D. (1998). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice, (3rd ed.), Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Stipek, D. J., & Kowalski, P. S. (1989). Learned helplessness in task-orienting versus performance-orienting testing conditions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 384–391.
- Tobias, S. (1987). Succeed with math: Every student's guide to conquering math anxiety. New York: College Board Publications.
- Tobias, S. (1993). Overcoming math anxiety revised and expanded. New York: Norton.
- Turner, J.C., Midgley, C., Meyer, D.K., Gheen, M., Anderman, E.M. & Kang, Y. (2002). The classroom environment and students’ reports of avoidance strategies in mathematics: A multimethod study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 88-106.
- Urdan, T. (1997). Achievement goal theory: Past results, future directions. In M.L. Maehr and P.R. Pintrich’s (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Vol. 10: (pp. 99-141). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Vermette, P.J. (1998). Making cooperative learning work: Student teams in K-12 classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
- Wells, D. (1994). Anxiety, insight and appreciation. Mathematics Teaching, 147, 8-11.
- Williams, W. V. (1988). Answers to questions about math anxiety. School Science and Mathematics, 88(2), 95-104.
- Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D.H. Schunk & B.J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice. New York: The Guilford Press.
- Zimmerman, B.J., Bonner, S. & Kovach, R. (1996). Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Zusho, A., Pintrich, P.R., & Cortina, K.S. (2005). Motives, goals, and adaptive patterns of performance in Asian American and Anglo American students. Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 141-158.